179 Genesee Street, Auburn, NY 13021
315-252-8766

TREATMENTS

Preventive
Fillings
Crowns and Bridges
Root Canal
Gum Treatment
Dentures
Extractions
Veneers
Tooth Whitening
Fissure Sealants
Oral Cancer Screening

Treatments Provided

Dr. Tabone and his staff provide a comprehensive range of dental treatments designed to cover all your needs.
At your initial dental examination you will meet Dr. Tabone and the dental team, and be able to discuss any questions and treatment options you may have in mind.
Please use the menu on the left to learn more about the various treatments we offer.

Preventive

The dentist will first discuss any medical problems you may have, as this may have an effect on your dental treatment. After this, he will conduct a thorough examination of your mouth that will involve checking all your teeth and a basic assessment of the gingivae (gums). While the dentist checks your teeth he will look for any cavities (holes) and any deficiencies in your restorations (fillings) and crowns (caps). To help investigate any problems you may have, special tests such as radiographs (x-rays) may be needed. This will help the dentist identify any further decay or abnormalities present.
For children, six month check-ups are essential to monitor the development and health of their teeth. We can also give parents and children preventative advice regarding good oral hygiene techniques and dietary habits to maintain a healthy mouth.
After checking your teeth and gums, your dentist will assess all the soft tissues of your mouth. This is important for oral cancer screening since some diseases can manifest in the mouth which you may be unaware of. Your dentist will then discuss with you the dental treatment options available and develop a treatment plan. Your dentist may also discuss smoking, alcohol consumption and diet as all these affect your mouth and teeth. It is important to have a dental check up at least twice yearly, even if you have no teeth, as your dentist is able to identify if there is anything abnormal such as oral cancer or other types of disease.
The hygienist's main role is to provide professional cleaning of the teeth for the patient. This is usually called scaling and polishing. However, perhaps their most important role is the education of the patient in the best way to keep the teeth free of plaque. Our hygienists work closely with the dentist to provide care tailored to your needs. Regular professional cleaning combined with your home care will help maintain a healthy mouth. A clean and healthy mouth will improve your appearance, help you keep your teeth and give you fresh breath. Poor gum health is now known to be related to heart problems later in life.
The training of the hygienist is centered around preventing dental disease (Gum disease and tooth decay). Carefully removing the deposits that build up on the teeth (tartar) and teaching you how to prevent it reforming again, will go a long way to slowing the progress of gum disease. By discussing your diet and recommending other preventive measures your decay rate can also be reduced. Remember prevention is free - you do it yourself!
Scaling and polishing is usually pain-free. However, if you do experience some discomfort the hygienist can eliminate this with the use of topical anesthetic creams or by giving you some local anesthetic. It is important that you let the hygienist know at the time so that some pain control can be given.
You can do a great deal to help yourself and the hygienist as you are in control of your mouth between visits to the practice. You will be shown how to remove plaque with a toothbrush and fluoride toothpaste. You will also be shown how to clean between your teeth with floss, tape or little brushes. There are many products available and we will recommend those that are appropriate for you.

Fillings

Dental amalgam is the traditional silver-colored filling we are all familiar with. Although there is mercury in dental amalgam, once it is combined with the other materials in the amalgam filling its chemical nature is changed rendering it harmless. Research into the safety of dental amalgam has been carried out for over a century and to date, no trustworthy controlled studies have found a connection between amalgam fillings and any medical problem. While composite (tooth colored) fillings are becoming more popular, amalgam fillings represent the most durable and long-lasting form of filling available (apart from gold fillings which are more expensive).
Today, because we are much more conscious of our smile, we can choose a natural looking alternative - the composite or tooth-colored filling. A composite resin is a tooth-colored plastic mixture filled with glass (silicon dioxide) first introduced in the 1960s. Originally only used for front teeth because of their softer nature, modern improvements to their composition make them generically suitable today.
The main advantage of composite fillings is there aesthetic appeal. The main disadvantage is their life expectancy. White fillings have always been considered less long lasting than silver amalgam fillings but there are now new materials available with properties comparable to silver amalgam, and these are proving to be very successful. The life expectancy of your composite filling can depend on the depth of cavity and its position in the mouth and your dentist is best positioned to advise you on the appropriate material to use in each circumstance.

Crowns and Bridges

A crown is an artificial restoration that fits over the remaining part of a prepared tooth, making it strong and giving it the shape of a natural tooth. A crown is sometimes known as a ‘cap’. Crowns are an ideal restoration for teeth that have been broken, or have been weakened by decay or a very large filling. A crown could be used for a number of other reasons, for instance:
  • you may have discolored fillings and would like to improve the appearance of the tooth
  • you may have had a root filling (root canal) which will need a crown to protect it
  • it may help hold a bridge or denture firmly in place
Crowns can be made of a variety of different materials and new materials are continually being introduced. Some of the most popular options are:
Porcelain bonded to precious metal: this is what most crowns are made from. A precious metal base is made and then porcelain is applied in layers over it.
Porcelain crowns: these crowns are made entirely out of porcelain and are not as strong as bonded crowns, but they can look very natural and are most often used for front teeth.
All-ceramic crowns: this modern technique offers a metal-free alternative, which can give the strength of a bonded crown and the appearance of a porcelain crown. Therefore it is suitable for use in all areas of the mouth.
The dentist will prepare the tooth to the ideal shape for the crown. This will involve removing most of the outer surface, and leaving a strong inner core. The amount of the tooth removed will be the same as the thickness of the crown.
Once the tooth is shaped, the dentist will take an impression (mould) of the prepared tooth, one of the opposite jaw and possibly another to mark the way you bite together. The impressions will then be given to the dental technician, along with an appropriate shade and other information needed for the crown to be made. In a few weeks, the crown will come back from the lab and will be inserted. When the dentist is happy with the fit and appearance of the new crown it will be fixed in place with special dental cement or adhesive. The cement forms a seal to hold the crown in place.
A bridge is a restoration designed to replace missing teeth. It is made by putting crowns on the teeth at either side of the space, and then joining these two crowns together by placing a false tooth in the space. This is all made in the laboratory and then the pieces are cemented into place with special adhesives. The bridge can’t be removed. Bridges are usually made of a precious metal. If the bridge will show, porcelain is then bonded to the base. Sometimes, there are other non-precious metals used in the base for strength. Although a bridge may seem expensive it will last many years. It will also improve your appearance and bite. A bridge uses the considerable skill of the dentist and technician, and in this way, it’s similar to ordering a piece of hand-made jewelry. The materials are also expensive so it’s fair to say a bridge will not be the cheapest treatment you have ever had.

Root Canal

Root canal treatment (also called endodontics) is needed when the blood or nerve supply of the tooth (known as the pulp) is infected through decay or injury. If the pulp becomes infected, the infection may spread through the root canal system of the tooth. This may eventually lead to an abscess. If root canal treatment (RCT) is not carried out, the infection will spread and the tooth may need to be taken out. The aim of the treatment is to remove all infection from the root canal. The root is then cleaned and filled to prevent any further infection.
Root canal treatment is a skilled and time-consuming procedure. Most courses of treatment can be completed in one visit, but sometimes in more difficult cases will involve two or more visits.
By procedure, the infected pulp is removed. Any abscesses which may be present, can also be drained at this time. The root canal is then cleaned and shaped and filled with an inert material called Gutta Percha that seals off the canals and prevents further infections. The alternative to Root Canal treatment is to have the tooth out. Once the pulp is destroyed, it can’t heal and it is not recommended to leave an infected tooth in the mouth. Although some people would prefer an extraction, it is usually best to keep as many natural teeth as possible. Afterwards, a crown is necessary on a root canal tooth to prevent breakage of the tooth, and premature loss.

Gum Treatment

Periodontal (gum) diseases, including gingivitis and periodontitis, are serious infections that, left untreated, can lead to tooth loss. The word periodontal literally means "around the tooth." Periodontal disease is a chronic bacterial infection that affects the gums and bone supporting the teeth. It begins when the bacteria in plaque (the sticky, colorless film that constantly forms on your teeth) causes the gums to become inflamed. In the mildest form of the disease, gingivitis, the gums redden, swell and bleed easily. There is usually little or no discomfort. Gingivitis is often caused by inadequate oral hygiene. Gingivitis is reversible with professional treatment and good oral home care.
Untreated gingivitis can advance to periodontitis. With time, plaque can spread and grow below the gum line. Toxins produced by the bacteria in plaque irritate the gums. The toxins stimulate a chronic inflammatory response in which the body in essence turns on itself, and the tissues and bone that support the teeth are broken down and destroyed. Gums separate from the teeth, forming pockets (spaces between the teeth and gums) that become infected. As the disease progresses, the pockets deepen and more gum tissue and bone are destroyed. Often, this destructive process has very mild symptoms. Eventually, teeth can become loose and may have to be removed.
Treatment for gum disease depends on the severity of the problem. This is often accomplished through non-surgical periodontal treatment, including scaling and root planing (a careful cleaning of the root surfaces to remove plaque and calculus [tartar] from deep periodontal pockets and to smooth the tooth root to remove bacterial toxins). In some cases, non-surgical therapy does have its limitations, however, and when it does not achieve periodontal health, surgery may be indicated to restore periodontal anatomy damaged by periodontal diseases and to facilitate oral hygiene practices.

Dentures

A denture is an appliance which is worn to replace lost or missing teeth to enable you to enjoy a healthy diet and smile with confidence. A complete or full denture is one which replaces all of the natural teeth in either the upper or lower jaws. A partial denture fills in the spaces created by lost or missing teeth and is attached to your natural teeth with metal clasps or devices called precision attachments. The base of a denture is called a plate and can be made of either acrylic (plastic) or metal. The teeth are normally made of acrylic and can be made to match your natural teeth. This is especially important in the case of partial dentures. Dentures can be made to closely resemble your natural teeth so that little change in appearance will be noticeable. Modern dentures may even improve the look of your smile and help fill out the appearance of your face.
Even with full dentures, you still need to take good care of your mouth. Every morning and evening, brush your gums, tongue and palate (roof of your mouth) with a soft–bristled brush. This removes plaque and stimulates circulation in the mouth. It is vitally important that partial denture wearers brush their teeth thoroughly every day to prevent tooth decay and gum disease that can lead to further teeth being lost. Dentures are very delicate and may break if dropped. When cleaning dentures it is recommended that you do so over a folded towel or sink of water. When you are not wearing your dentures, they should be stored in a container containing enough water to cover them.
Like natural teeth, dentures must be brushed daily to remove food debris and plaque. Brushing helps prevent dentures becoming stained and helps your mouth stay healthy. There are special denture cleaning brushes available but a soft bristled toothbrush can also be used. Avoid using hard-bristled brushes which can cause damage. The use of an effervescent denture cleaner will help remove stubborn stains and leave your denture feeling fresher. Over a period of time, dentures will need to be relined or re-made due to normal wear or a change in the shape of your mouth. Bone and gum ridges can recede or shrink causing jaws to align differently. Loose dentures can cause health problems, including sores and infections not to mention discomfort. A loose or ill-fitting denture can also make eating and speaking more difficult. It is important to replace worn or poorly fitting dentures before they cause problems.

Extractions

While it is always preferable to save your natural teeth, sometimes a tooth is not able to be restored or salvaged due to clinical circumstances like breakage, infections, or financial circumstances. In such cases, it is necessary to remove, or extract the tooth or teeth.
A tooth is extracted by first applying a local anesthetic to numb the affected tooth, followed by back-and-forth or side-to-side luxation (pressure) to dislodge the tooth from the surrounding periodontal ligament and bone. In cases where a tooth is severely broken down, it may be necessary to surgically remove some of the surrounding structures so that the affected tooth may be properly removed. In cases where a patient wishes to be sedated by IV or oral sedation medications, a referral to an oral surgeon is necessary.
After extraction and initial healing, a consultation can be scheduled to ascertain the best way to replace the missing tooth.

Veneers

A veneer is a thin layer of porcelain made to fit over the front surface of a tooth, like a false fingernail fits over a nail. Veneers can improve the color, shape and position of your teeth. A precise shade of porcelain can be chosen to give the right color to improve a single discolored or stained tooth or to lighten front teeth (usually the upper ones). A veneer can make a chipped tooth look intact again. The porcelain covers the whole of the front of the tooth with a thicker section replacing the broken part.
Veneers can also be used to close small gaps, when orthodontics (braces) are not suitable. If one tooth is slightly out of position, a veneer can sometimes be fitted to bring it into line with the others. Veneers make teeth look natural and healthy.
Because they are very thin and are held in place by a special strong bond very little preparation of the tooth is needed. Some of the shiny outer enamel surface of the tooth may be removed, to make sure that the veneer can be bonded permanently in place later. The amount of enamel removed is tiny and will be the same as the thickness of the veneer to be fitted, so that the tooth stays the same size. A local anesthetic (injection) may be used to make sure that there is no discomfort, but often this is not necessary. Once the tooth has been prepared, the dentist will take an ‘impression’ (mold). This will be given to the dental technician, along with any other information needed to make the veneer. The color of the surrounding teeth is matched on a shade guide to make sure that the veneer will look entirely natural.
A veneer takes at least two visits: the first to prepare the tooth and to match the shade, and the second to fit it. Before bonding it in place, your dentist will show you the veneer on your tooth to make sure you are happy with it. Bonding a veneer in place is done with a special adhesive, which holds it firmly on the tooth. Veneers should last for many years; but they can chip or break, just as your own teeth can.

Tooth Whitening

Tooth whitening can be a highly effective way of lightening the natural color of your teeth without removing any of the tooth surface. It cannot make a complete color change, but it will lighten the existing shade. Professional bleaching is the most common form of tooth whitening. Your dentist will be able to tell you if you are suitable for the treatment, and will supervise it if you are.
First the dentist will put a rubber shield or a gel on your gums to protect the soft tissue. They will then apply the whitening product to your teeth, using a specially made tray which fits into your mouth like a gum-shield. The ‘active ingredient’ in the product is usually hydrogen peroxide or carbamide peroxide. As the active ingredient is broken down, oxygen gets into the enamel on the teeth and the tooth color is made lighter. The total treatment can usually be done within two weeks.
You will need two visits to the dentist. Your dentist will need to make a mouth guard and will take impressions for this at the first appointment. Once your dentist has started the treatment, you will need to continue the treatment at home. This means regularly applying the whitening product over a period of time, for 30 minutes to one hour at a time. However, there are now some new products which can be applied for up to eight hours at a time. This means a satisfactory result can be achieved in as little as a few days. Some people may find that their teeth become sensitive to cold during or after the treatment. Others report discomfort in the gums, a sore throat or white patches on the gum line. These symptoms are usually temporary and should disappear within a few days of the treatment finishing. If any of these side effects continue you should go to your dentist.
There are also several whitening toothpastes on the market. Although they do not affect the natural color of your teeth, they may be effective at removing staining and therefore may improve the overall appearance of your teeth. Whitening toothpaste may also help the effect last, once your teeth have been professionally whitened. Tooth whitening can only lighten your existing tooth color. Also it only works on natural teeth. It will not work on any types of ‘false’ teeth such as dentures, crowns and veneers.

Fissure Sealants

Sealants are a safe and painless way or protecting your children’s teeth from decay. A sealant is a protective plastic coating, which is applied to the biting surfaces of the back teeth. The sealant forms a hard shield that keeps food and bacteria from getting into the tiny grooves in the teeth and causing decay. Sealants are only applied to the back teeth – the molars and premolars. These are the teeth that have pits and fissures on their biting surfaces.
Your dentist will tell you which teeth should be sealed after he has examined them, and checked whether the fissures are deep enough for sealing to help. Some teeth naturally form with deep grooves, which will need to be sealed, others with shallow ones which will not need sealing.
The process is usually quick and straightforward taking only a few minutes per tooth. The tooth is thoroughly cleaned, prepared with a special solution, and dried. The liquid sealant is then applied and allowed to set hard – usually by shining an ultraviolet light onto it. It is totally pain free, and the teeth do not feel any different afterwards. Sealants are often applied as soon as the permanent teeth start to come through. This is usually between 6 and 7 years of age. The rest are usually sealed as soon as they appear which can be any time between 11 and 14 years of age.
It is still vital that children continue to clean their teeth after sealants are placed. The smooth, sealed surface is now much easier to keep clean and healthy with normal tooth brushing. Using a fluoride toothpaste will also help to protect your children’s teeth. Pit and fissure sealing reduces tooth decay and the number of fillings your child might need.

Oral Cancer Screening

Most people have heard of cancer affecting parts of the body such as the lungs or breasts. However, cancer can occur in the mouth, where the disease can affect the lips, tongue, cheeks and throat. Anyone can be affected by oral cancer, whether they have their own teeth or not. Oral cancers are more common in people over 40, particularly men. However, research has shown that oral cancer is becoming more common in younger patients and in women. There are, on average, over 35,000 new cases of oral cancer diagnosed in the US each year. The number of new cases of oral cancer is on the increase. Nearly 8,000 people in the US die from oral cancer every year. Many of these deaths could be prevented if the cancer was caught early enough.
People with oral cancers are more likely to die than those having cervical cancer or melanoma skin cancer. Most cases of oral cancer are linked to tobacco and alcohol. Cigarette, cigar and pipe smoking are the main forms of tobacco use in the US. Alcohol increases the risk of oral cancer, and if tobacco and alcohol are consumed together the risk is even greater. Over-exposure to sunlight can also increase the risk of cancer of the lips. Recent studies have shown an alarming rate of oral cancer in people who have no risk factors at all.
Oral cancer can appear in different forms and can affect all parts of the mouth, tongue and lips. Oral cancer can appear as a painless mouth ulcer that does not heal normally. A white or red patch in the mouth can also develop into a cancer. It is important to visit your dentist if these areas do not heal within three weeks. Oral cancer can often be spotted in its early stages by your dentist during a thorough oral examination. If oral cancer is recognized early, then the chances of a cure are good. Many people with oral cancer go to their dentist or doctor too late.
The dentist examines the inside of your mouth and your tongue with the help of a small mirror. Remember, your dentist is able to see parts of your mouth that you cannot see easily yourself. If your dentist finds something unusual or abnormal they will refer you to an oral surgeon or ENT, who will carry out a thorough examination of your mouth and throat. A small sample of the cells may be gathered from the area (a biopsy), and these cells will be examined under the microscope to see what is wrong. If the cells are cancerous, more tests will be carried out. These may include overall health checks, blood tests, x-rays or scans. These tests will decide what course of treatment is needed.
If oral cancer is spotted early, the chances of a complete cure are good, and the smaller the area or ulcer the better the chance of a cure. However, too many people come forward too late, because they do not visit their dentist for regular examinations. It is important to visit your dentist regularly, as often as is recommended, even if you wear dentures. This is especially important if you smoke and drink alcohol.
When brushing your teeth, look out for any changes in your mouth, and report any red or white patches, or ulcers, that have not cleared up within three weeks. When exposed to the sun, be sure to use a good protective sunscreen, and put the correct type of barrier cream on your lips. A good diet, rich in vitamins A, C and E, provides some protection against the development of oral cancer. Plenty of fruit and vegetables help the body to protect itself, in general, from most cancers. Cut down on your smoking and drinking.